The people inhabit the area covers 5.273 square kilometers at the top end of North Sulawesi cape, based on their language is called The people of Minahasa. The capital city of the Minahasa is Manado, one of the biggest city in North East Indonesia. Usually the people called themselves as Manado people, and among them can still be seen as 5 different language dialects such as those living in Tonsea living on the northern most area, Tombulu living at north west of Tondanau lake, Totemboan living at south west and south of Tondanau lake, Tourlour living est of Tondanau lake, Tonsawang or Tonsini living in middle of Minahasa and spreaded on north coast, this last dialect group some have similarity with dialect of Sangir Talaud island and Bolaang Mongondow area, outside Minahasa region.
North Sulawesi has been splited into 2 provinces in the spirit of Indonesian executive and legislative creating job opportunities among them namely North Sulawesi with old capital or provinces administration in Manado and the new province of Gorontalo with administration center in the town of Gorontalo. The land of Minahasa has the most densely populated region, counting both provinces share 44.4% from total population of North Sulawesi before being splitted into 2 provinces. Record in 1969 mention that in 1825 the number of people in Minahasa were 73.088 persons while in 1961 reached 581.836 people, a rate of growth averaging 1.76 per year, far more slower then south Sulawesi.
The People of Minahasa also as other Indonesian ethnic groups, living in group with the smallest unit of settlement called desa headed by Hukum Tua ( Kumtua ). It is rarely found also a Desa consist of some smaller Desas become a unit based on sub-dialects, and this bigger unit is used as the center of administration of Kecamatan government after the independence. The head of Kecamatan traditionally called Hukum Kedua (Kumarua ) as the replacement of original Minahasan traditional organization called Hukum Besar before the independence. The terminology of " Wanua" or " Banua " during Majapahit kingdom was used to refer physical aspect of a settlement, due to the size of a settlement is to big, but do not have relation with modern administration or traditional organization.
Settlement pattern of the people is permanent and heir traditional house is built on stilts, high poles some times 2.5 meters above land. This type of house has much been changed, yet can still be seen. Their traditional farming is also permanent, most families built temporary huts on their farming land, except if the land is only reachable more then 1 day by foot, this huts is used during busy season, and back again to their house in Desa after that. The house of religious head, the Walian has typical identification that its roof made of palm fibre or other type of leaves,in the house are hung the jaw of Anoa, deer, and others as decoration, like the people of Sa'dang in Toraja.
Farming and Land
Farming tradition in Minahasa is permanent only some of sloping land lack of water people cultivate the land and left after, due to regular farming is impossible, but this type of land has now been used to grow long life plantation such as cocoa and clove. The tools of farmer is plough, dragged by a couple of cows, hues, blades, and shovel. Some families own only small size farm which can be cultivated by their own, but some have large farm which is worked with co-operation among farmers. This co-operation is called "mapalus" or by hiring workers. Other way is give the land to other farmer to cultivate and sharing the harvest, in this case farm owner is called tinoyo, and the cultivator is tinoyoan. Normally the sharing is even, a tradition known by large part of ethnics in Indonesia.
Land ownership in Minahasa is private, which is called tanah pasini, and ownership is transferred through generations or through selling. Conflict on borders between land is solved through hukum Tua, as the traditional way of indicating borders is used living plant called sipat wood, and often this living border is lost or died unawared by both sides. The main product of their land are corn Taro, Banana, and vegetables. As second activities the people usually hunt forest mouse, birds fish, and pigs. Most farmers grow pigs, chicken dogs, and in small numbers as the source of protein. Lake Tondano is the source of fish besides the fishermen along the beach and the islands. Forestry products are still harvested such as wood for lodges or boards of house construction.
The Minahasan introduces kinship from the core family up to big relation. Core family is called famili, probably taken from Dutch word, since here is other name known as patuari. Patuari relation covers brothers/sisters ( patuari karengan ), fathers and mothers nephews/nieces ( anak ne matuari ), second level nephews/nieces of father and mother ( puyun ne matuari ), brothers/sisters of wife, her parents ( ina, oma 0, brothers/sisters of father and mother ( Om or Ito, Tanta or Mui ), wife parents ( papa mantu, mama mantu ), brothers/sisters of wife's parents ( Om or Ito, Tanta or Mui ) including their nephews/nieces ( pahanaken ). Married woman will use the family name of her husband. Family's heritages is that given by parents of husband, wife, and collected during family's life.
In the past parents had the bigger parts to look for son's or daughter's wife or husband, but today the man or woman is free to choose his/her partner. The tradition guides the ideal marriage is between families ( family exogamy ), and based on monogamy, just like in Bali. This probably the influence of majority Christian. After marriage the couple can stay at husband's parent house or wife's parent house while preparing for a new house to live in a new place ( neolocal ). Past record mention that divorce often happened, which is probably caused by bilateral system of kinship for the couple. Also big families within a house in the past seemed to be exist winch was consist of 6 or more families, like Dayak people in Borneo along the Mahakam river. This type of family settlement by anthropologist called utrolocal which is not exist today. Family's properties according the tradition will fall evenly to their children, adopted child(ren), relatives that participated in funding the expenses of the dead.
Traditional social organization of Minahasan as mentioned little above, that a group of settlement is called Kampung located by a Hukum Tua ( Kumtua 0. Each Hukum Tua divided into smaller areas headed by Kepala Jaga. Meweteng and were assisted by writer, land meter ( expert on measuring land ), mantri aer ( taking care of irrigation ), tukang palakat ( like communicator ), kapala jaga polisi ( security ). Earning of Hukum Tua was 6 - 8 % from total tax collected within the Kampung and his land was cultivated by the people for him. All kampung's functionaries are freed from tax. In the past some Kampung associated in on group headed by a Kepala Imbalak, which is after independence has become a Kecamatan administration area. The whole area of of Minahasa consist of 28 Kecamatan areas. Today the people do not have tradition of social stratification only there is a public assumption that educated workers or government service and rich people are considered having higher status. according the myth of Minahasa in the past was exist stratification as the upper layer was those taking care of religion called Makurua - Siow, Walian, Tonaas. The middle layer was Makatelupitu, that was government service, and lowest is Pasiowan Telu, the common people.
A unique tradition of Minahasa called Mapalus showing a great similarity with " Sekaa" in Bali. This group or we can call temporary association had the concept of reciprocal assistance among members. In the beginning this association formed to cultivate the farming and later extended to any work. This type of association today in Bali has been disappeared.
Belief and Religion
Biggest religion Minahasa is Catholic with the center of Sinode in Tomohon town which form 90% from total Christian, 7% moslem and 3% Buddhist. Although the people follow some religions, yet the original belief is still alive. The basic belief is the existence of good and bad spirits. Human being after death can also become a good or bad spirit according to their deeds during his/her life. The spirit of human being has 3 aspects, one is memory ( gegenang ), feeling ( pemendam ) and power ( keketer ). Aspect that can manifest ito good or bad spirit is memory. This concept arising various rituals that are still being practiced today with the expert known as Walian, a traditional medician ( compared to Bali "Balian" ) and Tonaas expert on ritual. The Walian introduces specialization such as walian for maternity called biyang, walian to search thief called mawi, walian that practices black magic called pandoti.Aceh Land and People
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Bali Land and People
Batak Ethnic Land and People
Bugis Land and People
Indonesia Chinese People
Dayak Interland Society
Flores Island People
Javanese Cultural Center
Mentawai Island People
Minahasa Land and People
Nias People Society
Sasak Land and People
Sundanese Land and People
Timor People Society
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The West Papuan Tribes
Among various tour packages and tour options in Bali there are some tours which can be said always on the publications and interest a large part of travellers to Bali. Kintamani mountain tour sits at the first number as the most popular sightseeing tour, second is Taman Ayun and Tanah Lot tour, third is Uluwatu temple tour.
- Kintamani tour bring combination of watching barong dance, beautiful temple architecture, beautiful natural views, dance, carving, accessories and painting see description
- Taman Ayun and Tanah Lot temples are two historical heritages from 17th, Taman Ayun palace temple which is always found near palaces of Balinese king starting 18th century see description
- Uluwatu temple located on steep drop cliff on the southernmost tip of Bali island. see description