The area of Java is very vast covering central and east Java island. In ancient time Mataram kingdom which are now the the special district of Yogyakarta and Solo in Central Java were the center of their culture. In 1755 the kingdom was splited into 2, one is the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, and one other is Kasunanan of Surakarta ( both are Islamic kingdoms ). Javanese speak complex dialect which introduces social status. In general the dialect is divided into two levels that are "Ngoko" dialect which is spoken among known partners, and "Krama" dialect which is spoken among those who are not known each other and for those whose social status is considered higher. Both Ngoko and Krama have more further variations, when it was spoken for palace member, higher status level, or more senior people, or for lower level, etc.
Java land is the most densely populated in Indonesia and a real frightening view on the future of thenature and living on the island. Big rate of birth is caused by lack of knowledge not only among illitrates, but someeven those graduated at universities still unable to see the fate of dogmas. Many big cities are still developing in term of people numbers such as Yogyakarta, Semarang, Solo, Surabaya, Blitar, and Malang. While dozens of medium to small cities still heavy with population. So the welfare of the people is still a tremendous big works. Still a large part of the population working on the land cultivating rice, cassava ( marlihot utilissima Phl), corn (zea mays L), yam (ipomea batatas poir ), Kacang ( vigna sinencis), gude (cjamis cajan), soya ( glycine soya Bth ), bean (arachis hypogen L), etc.
Some people work in government offices, private companies, trades and especially near the beaches as fishermen. Personal ownership of land in Java is the same as other areas in Indonesia. The ownership is transferred down from generation to generation, divided among the heirs. That is why in Java most family has a small land for farming.
Kinship system in Java is almost the same as in Bali, that is forbidden to marry between brother and sister, nephew, and children among brothers and sisters, and marry older woman. There are many ways a man and a woman come to their marriage status. First the family of the man come to the family of the woman to request their daughter, and this is the normal procedure. Second is when a man after dedicated himself to the parent of the woman, than is given as a present to marry their daughter. Third is the present from royal family. Fourth is the family of the woman come to the family of man to request. Fifth is when a marriage is arranged by both parents, in this case the marriage will be an imperative and forced by both parents. This way is become very rare and might be disappear in the future. Divorce in some reasons is accepted due to the absence of child, inability of husband to give welfare to the wife, and other reasonable causes.
In Javanese society there is class considered high status such as "bandara-bandara"
consist of royal family lineage, and the "priyayi" the government workers and learnt persons. In contrast to above 2 groups is a class called "wong cilik" means small people, those are the common people which is mostly poor. Based on religious characteristics there are "Santri" and "Kejawen" Santri is Moslem that is very obedience with Islamic rules, while Kejawen is Moslem but they are not praying nor have the idea to go for a haj to Mecca, but they respect nature,tradition, and ancestors and very tolerant.
Organizationally, the smaller unit of administration is called Desa or Kelurahan with head called "Lurah" Once again the understanding of Desa in Java contains much different affairs compared those a Desa in Bali. A Desa in Java is an administrative area as a bridge between Indonesian government with localorganization.
Islam has been the majority religion in Java which spread was started intensively since around 1500 M started by the kingdom of Demak and Cirebon. Almost every corner of the land we can see mosques. We can see that 2 group of Moslems are exist, one is group that put every effort to make Islam in Indonesia exactly like in Arab and this group can be seen as 2 ways also, one is modern way such as Muhammdayah, and second is hard way which prabably already exist since the beginning of arrival in Java around 1300 M. This way mostly wearing Arab like dresses, and for women wearing full body veils or known as burkha ( from Sanskrit word mean hide. Not all Javanese practice religious rituals according to the Islamic doctrines. As already mentioned there are "Kejawen", and also many people are Christian, Hindu, Buddhist, and others. The Moslem-Kejawen who put an effort to preserve the tradition original to Java believe that there is an omni-power incomparable wherever and whenever it does. This supreme power is called "Kesakten" Below kesakten there are ancestor's spirits, good and evil spirits which can affect human life. In conjunction with this power and spirits they make an offering and a feast for the blessing ceremony. Those rituals such as:
- Life circle rites including many ritual after death. Basically there are ritual from Pregnancy - Birth - Life - Death - After Death.
- Various ritual for the Desa, Rice field, and Land cultivation,
- Various ritual for the Moslem holidays,
- Ritual for special event such as opening new house, diseases, long journey etc.
During the ritual they make an offering and is dedicated to supreme power and the lower invisible beings. Even, after death they have ceremonies after 3, 7, 40, 100, and 1000 days.
In their ritualistic tradition it is very clear that influence of Hindu is still very strong observing from the names they use, and some specific beliefs which arises such as (1) a belief of good and evil spirits, (2) a belief mixed between Moslem and Hindu, (3) a belief showing Hindu characters, (4) a belief in mystic. They are all in search of human welfare.
Various tourism interests are spreaded over Java from western tip to eastern tip of the island. Lately the security concern is arises due to the economic crisis of the country which is not last yet.
Aceh Land and People
Baduy Unique People
Bali Land and People
Batak Ethnic Land and People
Bugis Land and People
Indonesia Chinese People
Dayak Interland Society
Flores Island People
Javanese Cultural Center
Mentawai Island People
Minahasa Land and People
Nias People Society
Sasak Land and People
Sundanese Land and People
Timor People Society
Toraja Land and People
The West Papuan Tribes
Among various tour packages and tour options in Bali there are some tours which can be said always on the publications and interest a large part of travellers to Bali. Kintamani mountain tour sits at the first number as the most popular sightseeing tour, second is Taman Ayun and Tanah Lot tour, third is Uluwatu temple tour.
- Kintamani tour bring combination of watching barong dance, beautiful temple architecture, beautiful natural views, dance, carving, accessories and painting see description
- Taman Ayun and Tanah Lot temples are two historical heritages from 17th, Taman Ayun palace temple which is always found near palaces of Balinese king starting 18th century see description
- Uluwatu temple located on steep drop cliff on the southernmost tip of Bali island. see description