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THE BUGIS SULAWESI

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In every part of Indonesia especially in the cities is always presence the Chinese. But most Indonesian do not know them well. There are actually 4 groups of Chinese who have settled in Indonesia. These 4 groups are based on their language and origin in China. Chinese migration into Indonesia was happened between 16th to 19th century.

The Origin

  1. Hokkien people, came from Fukien Province is an area very important for the history of Chinese trade in the south. They have a character of very diligent, patient, and delicate and are very good in trading. So most of them are economically success. Their migration into Indonesia reached a wide area in east Indonesia, central Java, East Java, and west Sumatra.
  2. Teo-Chiu and Hakka (Khek) people is from southern part of China in hinterland of Swatow in eastern Kwantung Province. The Teo-Chiu and Hakka people were employed in the minings, such as East Sumatera, Bangka island, and Biliton.
  3. Kanton people ( Kwong Fu ), was the resident of southern part of Kwantung province. At the beginning they were interested by Indonesian mining industry, and they came with skill. They are the people who own shops, and blacksmiths. Their numbar in Indonesia are not as many as Hakka and Teo-Chiu.

For Indonesian the 4 groups are not important, as they are much more known as:

  1. Indonesian - Chinese or " Peranakan"
  2. Original Chinese  or "Totok"

This classification is much based on the degree of their assimilation and acculturation with the local people and culture. Most Hokkien who migrated first to Indonesia has experienced deep assimilation and acculturation, even their physical characters are almost the same as local people due to the marriage exchange. They mostly forget their language, and speak local language and Indonesian.

Group of migration that live in west Java, Sumatea, and West Kalimantan are still Totok with Chinese villages, speak their own language and continiue their culture in Indonesia.

Chinese During Colonization

During Dutch colonization with the different treatment in social status and affairs, they did not want to be classified as the local. This was grown by the China Nationalist propaganda arised during 20th century. This propadanda of re-orientating their nation influenced also the Chinese in Indonesia. This idea is given an advantage again with China system of nationality that acknowledges father's blood lineage or nationality based on blood relation called ius sanguinis. This policy before 1955 had caused double nationality and he most important from this impact is the growing awareness of the Great China family or in simple a process of totonization.

In general most Chinese in Indonesia work in trade, especially the Hokkien. In West Java and West Sumatera they are farmers. In Bagan Siapi-api ( Riau ) the Hokkien are fishermen. The Hakka in Sumatera work as labor in minings, while in West Kalimantan they are farmers. The Teo-Chiu work as farmers but many also labor in farm estates in East Sumatera.

The Tradition

The trade of Chinese in Indonesia is based on family's ownership and family management. Mostly small size and do not need worker from outside. If their business growing, they open new branch which is given to their brother, child or any family member to manage, except if they build limited corporation do they works with other Chinese clan or even other ethnic that they consider profitable.

It was a paradigm that the Totok consider the Peranakan is lower in class due to their mixed blood, while the Peranakan consider the Totok is lower in class as they are all coming to Indonesia as labor. During Dutch colonization the Chinese as if they were an autonomous society and was permitted to rebuild their own culture in Indonesia, and just after the ethnic getting strong the Dutch realized the situation and closed all education belong to the exclusive Chinese and their organization. During Japan control on Dutch East India, all western schools were closed, and again Chinese school rebuilt. After the independence of Indonesia all educational facility and system were reorganized and adjusted under the basic constitution of Indonesia, that the Educational Facility is for all, and no special treatment be exist. Starting from 1957 all Indonesian must follow the rules no exception of any ethnic.

The Kinship

Kinship system of Chinese in Indonesia is almost the same as main ethnic cultures in Indonesia such as marriage suggestion and interdiction. The only different is their family unit is much bigger ( big virilocal ). The status of women in the past was low and become the subject of her husband, brothers, and their parent in law. A man pursue to have boy, and as long as the boy has not yet born, the husband can take more women.

In Indonesia the Chinese follow Buddhist, Kung Fu-tse, Christian and Islam, although in Great China the population are Buddhist. The strong belief of Chinese is their love to the ancestors which is exactly the same as local belief of various oritinal ethnic of Indonesia archipelago, although one has already passed this world, their body is cremated, and the ash is kept at home, in a ceramic vas. They also celebrate the Chinese New Year called " Imlek" in Indonesia, while in Great China it is called " Summer Feast ", and in Bali is called " Chinese Galungan"

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POPULAR TOURS

Among various tour packages and tour options in Bali there are some tours which can be said always on the publications and interest a large part of travellers to Bali. Kintamani mountain tour sits at the first number as the most popular sightseeing tour, second is Taman Ayun and Tanah Lot tour, third is Uluwatu temple tour.

  1. Kintamani tour bring combination of watching barong dance, beautiful temple architecture, beautiful natural views, dance, carving, accessories and painting bul see description
  2. Taman Ayun and Tanah Lot temples are two historical heritages from 17th, Taman Ayun palace temple which is always found near palaces of Balinese king starting 18th century bul see description
  3. Uluwatu temple located on steep drop cliff on the southernmost tip of Bali island. bul see description